72 Frame rate macos x Ashfall Mega (windows)
7,5 / 10
Casts: Hye-jin Jeon
director: Byung-seo Kim
2020: Blender Projects Check out the 2020 Blender projects! Open source 3D creation. Free to use for any purpose, forever. About Blender is the free and open source 3D creation suite. It supports the entirety of the 3D pipeline—modeling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing and motion tracking, video editing and 2D animation pipeline. Get Involved Blender is a public project, made by hundreds of people from around the world; by studios and individual artists, professionals and hobbyists, scientists, students, VFX experts, animators, game artists, modders, and the list goes on. Everything You Need Cycles Render Engine Cycles is Blenders built-in powerful unbiased path-tracer engine that offers stunning ultra-realistic rendering. Real-time viewport preview CPU & GPU rendering PBR shaders & HDR lighting support VR rendering support Modeling, Sculpt, UV Blenders comprehensive array of modeling tools make creating, transforming and editing your models a breeze. Full N-Gon support Edge slide, inset, grid and bridge fill, and more Advanced sculpting tools and brushes Multi-resolution and Dynamic subdivision 3D painting with textured brushes and masking Python scripting for custom tools and add-ons VFX VFX professionals say: “Probably the best tracker in the market”. Blender includes production ready camera and object tracking. Allowing you to import raw footage, track the footage, mask areas and see the camera movements live in your 3D scene. Eliminating the need to switch between programs. Auto and Manual tracking Powerful camera reconstruction Real-time preview of your tracked footage and 3D scene Support for Planar tracking and Tripod solvers Animation & Rigging Thanks to the high quality rigging and animation tools, Blender is being used for numerous short films, advertisements, TV series and feature films now. Envelope, skeleton and automatic skinning B-spline interpolated bones Curve editor and dope sheets Custom bone shapes for fast input Sound synchronization Story Art, Drawing 2D in 3D Really! Drawing directly in a 3D viewport makes a lot of sense. It opens unsurpassed workflow freedom for story-boarders and 2D artists. Combine 2D with 3D right in the viewport Full Animation Support with Onion Skinning Layers & Colors for Stroke and Fill Sculpt brush strokes & Parent to 3D objects Make it Your Own Blender has a flexible Python controlled interface. Layout, colors, size and even fonts can be adjusted. Use hundreds of add-ons by the community or create your own using Blenders accessible Python API. Customize the interface layout and colors Hi-res/Retina screen support Create your own tools and add-ons Draw over the OpenGL viewport Connect with Blenders Render API background: Manuel Grad - Support Blender Subscribe to Blender Cloud Training, assets & tools in one place. With 9, 90/month you get: 100+ hours of high-quality training All the open movies files and tutorials Exclusive production insight & walk-throughs All of that, plus the Blender Cloud Add-on: Sync your Blender settings across devices Share images & screenshots from within Blender Download 1500+ textures & HDRIs from Blender SUBSCRIBE NOW Open Projects The iconic Blender Institute Open Movies, featuring all the production files, assets, artwork, and never-seen-before content. Training & Tutorials Character modeling, 3D printing, VFX, rigging and more. We offer 12 complete training series with 100+ hours of training. Services & Tools Create personal projects, collaborate with other members, store and sync your Blender settings across multiple workstations. Made by you.
Final Cut Pro 10. 4. 7 You can use the HDR Tools effect to convert wide-gamut HDR video clips from one color space to another or to set the maximum brightness of a clip. For example, you might use the HDR Tools effect on any of the following kinds of wide-gamut HDR source clips: MOV or MXF files that were encoded directly using the HLG (Hybrid Log-Gamma) or PQ (Perceptual Quantizer) standard. This could be media originating from a camera or media exported from Final Cut Pro, Motion, Compressor, or another app. A source file that is not HLG or PQ (it could be log or RAW, for example) but has a LUT applied (either a camera LUT or a custom LUT effect) where the LUT is designed to output HLG or PQ video. See Apply LUTs in Final Cut Pro. A compound clip that has been set to either PQ or HLG. For example, you might color correct a PQ project (a project configured for Rec. 2020 PQ) and then create a compound clip of the entire timeline and place it in an HLG project. For information about compound clips, see Intro to compound clips in Final Cut Pro. For information about wide-gamut HDR project settings, see Use wide-gamut HDR color processing in Final Cut Pro. If, instead, you want to fix incorrect or missing metadata, see Change a clips color space metadata. Tekenlimiet: 250 Neem geen persoonlijke informatie op in uw opmerking. De maximale tekenlimiet is 250. Hartelijk dank voor uw feedback.
ชอบหนังเกาหลีแนวภัยพิบัติกับซอมบี้มากๆเลย. The,website, Please Ashfall. John Henry, John Wick. All bada* es are named John. This article is about the current Apple operating system for Mac computers. For pre-2001 versions, see Classic Mac OS. macOS Developer Apple Inc. Written in C C. 1] Objective-C Swift  assembly language OS family Unix, Macintosh Working state Current Source model Closed source (with open source components) Initial release March 24, 2001; 18 years ago Latest release 10. 15. 3  19D76) 4] January 28, 2020; 7 days ago. Marketing target Personal computing Available in 39 languages  List of languages [as of macOS Catalina] Arabic, Catalan, Croatian, Chinese (Hong Kong) Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (Australia) English (United Kingdom) English (United States) Finnish, French (Canada) French (France) German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil) Portuguese (Portugal) Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish (Latin America) Spanish (Spain) Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese Update method System Preferences ( 10. 14+ Mac App Store ( 10. 8 – 10. 13) Software Update ( 10. 0 – 10. 7) Platforms x86-64 ( 10. 4. 7 –present) IA-32 ( 10. 4 – 10. 6. 8; discontinued) PowerPC ( 10. 5. 8; discontinued) Kernel type Hybrid ( XNU) Default user interface Aqua ( Graphical) License Commercial software, proprietary software Preceded by Classic Mac OS, NeXTSTEP Official website www /macos Support status Supported Part of a series on macOS Features History Transition to Intel processors Architecture List of applications List of games Components Versions Rhapsody (Developer Release) Hera (Server 1. 0) Kodiak (Public Beta) Cheetah (10. 0) Puma (10. 1) Jaguar (10. 2) Panther (10. 3) Tiger (10. 4) Leopard (10. 5) Snow Leopard (10. 6) Lion (10. 7) Mountain Lion (10. 8) Mavericks (10. 9) Yosemite (10. 10) El Capitan (10. 11) Sierra (10. 12) High Sierra (10. 13) Mojave (10. 14) Catalina (10. 15) Applications App Store Automator Calculator Calendar Chess Contacts Dashboard Dictionary DVD Player FaceTime Finder Game Center Grapher iTunes ( history) Launchpad Mail Messages Music Notes Notification Center Photo Booth Podcasts Photos Preview Reminders Safari ( version history) Stickies TextEdit Time Machine Utilities Activity Monitor AirPort Utility Archive Utility Audio MIDI Setup Bluetooth File Exchange ColorSync Console Crash Reporter DigitalColor Meter Directory Utility DiskImageMounter Disk Utility Font Book Grab Help Viewer Image Capture Installer Keychain Access Migration Assistant Network Utility ODBC Administrator Remote Install Mac OS X Screen Sharing System Preferences System Information Terminal Universal Access VoiceOver Related Classic Mac OS Copland NeXTSTEP Rhapsody Darwin v t e macOS. 6] previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of proprietary graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.  8] macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the classic Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10. 0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10. 1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10. 8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10. 9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California.  Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version is macOS Catalina, which was publicly released in October 2019. Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold a separate series of operating systems called Mac OS X Server. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1. 0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10. 7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.  macOS is based on the Unix operating system and on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving Apple in 1985. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is the Roman numeral for the number 10 and is pronounced as such. The X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but gradually receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10. 5 Leopard  and all releases from Mac OS X 10. 6 Snow Leopard up to the current version also have UNIX 03 certification.  macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, 13] iPadOS, tvOS, and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10. 4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.  Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC -based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10. 7 Lion (2011) run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, and do not support PowerPC applications. Development Simplified history of Unix-like operating systems The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989. The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned.  This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system.  This purchase also led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, and then the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals. The project was first code named " Rhapsody " and then officially named Mac OS X.  18] Mac OS X Launch of Mac OS X Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers; current versions of macOS retain the major version number "10. Previous Macintosh operating systems (versions of the classic Mac OS) were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. The letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral, and Apple has stated that it should be pronounced "ten" in this context.  20] However, it is also commonly pronounced like the letter "X. 20] 21] The first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1. 0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system. Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance. The consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10. 0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface, but criticizing it for sluggish performance.  With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X.  Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10. 10, described the early releases in retrospect as 'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as 'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog. 22] 24] 25] Following releases Apple rapidly developed several new releases of Mac OS X.  Siracusa's review of version 10. 3, Panther, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases. 27] Version 10. 4, Tiger, reportedly shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file searching and improved graphics processing, that Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.  As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the classic Mac OS, with applications being added and removed.  Considering music to be a key market, Apple developed the iPod music player and music software for the Mac, including iTunes and GarageBand.  Targeting the consumer and media markets, Apple emphasized its new "digital lifestyle" applications such as the iLife suite, integrated home entertainment through the Front Row media center and the Safari web browser. With increasing popularity of the internet, Apple offered additional online services, including the, MobileMe and most recently iCloud products. It later began selling third-party applications through the Mac App Store. Newer versions of Mac OS X also included modifications to the general interface, moving away from the striped gloss and transparency of the initial versions. Some applications began to use a brushed metal appearance, or non-pinstriped titlebar appearance in version 10.  In Leopard, Apple announced a unification of the interface, with a standardized gray-gradient window style.  33] In 2006, the first Intel Macs released used a specialized version of Mac OS X 10. 4 Tiger.  A key development for the system was the announcement and release of the iPhone from 2007 onwards. While Apple's previous iPod media players used a minimal operating system, the iPhone used an operating system based on Mac OS X, which would later be called "iPhone OS" and then iOS. The simultaneous release of two operating systems based on the same frameworks placed tension on Apple, which cited the iPhone as forcing it to delay Mac OS X 10. 5 Leopard.  However, after Apple opened the iPhone to third-party developers its commercial success drew attention to Mac OS X, with many iPhone software developers showing interest in Mac development.  In 2007, Mac OS X 10. 5 Leopard was the sole release with universal binary components, allowing installation on both Intel Macs and select PowerPC Macs.  It is also the final release with PowerPC Mac support. Mac OS X 10. 6 Snow Leopard was the first version of OS X to be built exclusively for Intel Macs, and the final release with 32-bit Intel Mac support.  The name was intended to signal its status as an iteration of Leopard, focusing on technical and performance improvements rather than user-facing features; indeed it was explicitly branded to developers as being a 'no new features' release.  Since its release, several OS X or macOS releases (namely OS X Mountain Lion, OS X El Capitan and macOS High Sierra) follow this pattern, with a name derived from its predecessor, similar to the ' tick-tock model ' used by Intel. In two succeeding versions, Lion and Mountain Lion, Apple moved some applications to a highly skeuomorphic style of design inspired by contemporary versions of iOS, at the same time simplifying some elements by making controls such as scroll bars fade out when not in use.  This direction was, like brushed metal interfaces, unpopular with some users, although it continued a trend of greater animation and variety in the interface previously seen in design aspects such as the Time Machine backup utility, which presented past file versions against a swirling nebula, and the glossy translucent dock of Leopard and Snow Leopard.  In addition, with Mac OS X 10. 7 Lion, Apple ceased to release separate server versions of Mac OS X, selling server tools as a separate downloadable application through the Mac App Store. A review described the trend in the server products as becoming "cheaper and simpler. shifting its focus from large businesses to small ones. 41] OS X OS X logo from 2012–2013 In 2012, with the release of OS X 10. 8 Mountain Lion, the name of the system was shortened from Mac OS X to OS X. That year, Apple removed the head of OS X development, Scott Forstall, and design was changed towards a more minimal direction.  Apple's new user interface design, using deep color saturation, text-only buttons and a minimal, flat' interface, was debuted with iOS 7 in 2013. With OS X engineers reportedly working on iOS 7, the version released in 2013, OS X 10. 9 Mavericks, was something of a transitional release, with some of the skeuomorphic design removed, while most of the general interface of Mavericks remained unchanged.  The next version, OS X 10. 10 Yosemite, adopted a design similar to iOS 7 but with greater complexity suitable for an interface controlled with a mouse.  From 2012 onwards, the system has shifted to an annual release schedule similar to that of iOS. It also steadily cut the cost of updates from Snow Leopard onwards, before removing upgrade fees altogether from 2013 onwards.  Some journalists and third-party software developers have suggested that this decision, while allowing more rapid feature release, meant less opportunity to focus on stability, with no version of OS X recommendable for users requiring stability and performance above new features.  Apple's 2015 update, OS X 10. 11 El Capitan, was announced to focus specifically on stability and performance improvements.  macOS In 2016, with the release of macOS 10. 12 Sierra, the name was changed from OS X to macOS to streamline it with the branding of Apple's other primary operating systems: iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.  macOS 10. 12 Sierra's main features are the introduction of Siri to macOS, Optimized Storage, improvements to included applications, and greater integration with Apple's iPhone and Apple Watch. The Apple File System (APFS) was announced at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference in 2016 as a replacement for HFS+ a highly criticized file system.  Apple previewed macOS 10. 13 High Sierra at the 2017 Worldwide Developers Conference, before releasing it later that year.  When running on solid state drives, it uses APFS, rather than HFS. 51] Its successor, macOS 10. 14 Mojave, was released in 2018, adding a dark user interface option and a dynamic wallpaper setting.  It was succeeded by macOS 10. 15 Catalina in 2019, which replaces iTunes with separate apps for different types of media, and introduces the Catalyst system for porting iOS apps.  At macOS's core is a POSIX -compliant operating system built on top of the XNU kernel, with standard Unix facilities available from the command line interface. Apple has released this family of software as a free and open source operating system named Darwin. On top of Darwin, Apple layered a number of components, including the Aqua interface and the Finder, to complete the GUI -based operating system which is macOS.  With its original introduction as Mac OS X, the system brought a number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor, the classic Mac OS. For example, pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other. Many aspects of macOS's architecture are derived from OPENSTEP, which was designed to be portable, to ease the transition from one platform to another. For example, NeXTSTEP was ported from the original 68k -based NeXT workstations to x86 and other architectures before NeXT was purchased by Apple, 55] and OPENSTEP was later ported to the PowerPC architecture as part of the Rhapsody project. Prior to macOS High Sierra, and on drives other than solid state drives (SSDs) the default file system is HFS+ which it inherited from the classic Mac OS. Operating system designer Linus Torvalds has criticized HFS+ saying it is "probably the worst file system ever" whose design is "actively corrupting user data. He criticized the case insensitivity of file names, a design made worse when Apple extended the file system to support Unicode.  57] Initially, HFS+ was designed for classic Mac OS, which runs on big-endian 68K and PowerPC systems. When Apple switched Macintosh to little-endian Intel processors, it continued to use big-endian byte order on HFS+ file systems. As a result, macOS on current Macs must do byte swap when it reads file system data.  59] These concerns are being addressed with the new Apple File System, which is used for file systems on SSDs in macOS High Sierra. The Darwin subsystem in macOS is in charge of managing the file system, which includes the Unix permissions layer. In 2003 and 2005, two Macworld editors expressed criticism of the permission scheme; Ted Landau called misconfigured permissions "the most common frustration" in macOS, while Rob Griffiths suggested that some users may even have to reset permissions every day, a process which can take up to 15 minutes.  More recently, another Macworld editor, Dan Frakes, called the procedure of repairing permissions vastly overused.  He argues that macOS typically handles permissions properly without user interference, and resetting permissions should only be tried when problems emerge.  The architecture of macOS incorporates a layered design: 63] the layered frameworks aid rapid development of applications by providing existing code for common tasks.  Apple provides its own software development tools, most prominently an integrated development environment called Xcode. Xcode provides interfaces to compilers that support several programming languages including C, C. Objective-C, and Swift. For the Apple–Intel transition, it was modified so that developers could build their applications as a universal binary, which provides compatibility with both the Intel-based and PowerPC-based Macintosh lines.  First and third-party applications can be controlled programatically using the AppleScript framework, 66] retained from the classic Mac OS, 67] or using the newer Automator application that offers pre-written tasks that do not require programming knowledge.  Software compatibility List of macOS versions and the software they run Operating system Safari QuickTime iTunes Messages / iChat iWork 10. 15 "Catalina" 13. 5 13. 0 10. 5 N/A 2019 10. 14 "Mojave" 12. 0 12. 9 2018 10. 13 "High Sierra" 11. 4 12. 8. 2 2017 10. 12 "Sierra" 12. 1. 2 10. 11 "El Capitan" 9. 3 9. 2 2016 10. 10 "Yosemite" 9. 3 8. 0 2014 10. 9 "Mavericks" 7. 3 10. 3 12. 2 2013 10. 8 "Mountain Lion" 6. 1? 10. 2 12. 3  09 10. 7 "Lion" note 1] 10. 1 12. 2. 2  8. 0b or 6. 1 10. 6 "Snow Leopard" 5. 10  4. 5  11. 4  5. 5 "Leopard" 5. 6 3. 6 7. 7 10. 3  4. 4 "Tiger" 4. 3 2. 3 7. 4 9. 1  3. 3 "Panther" 1. 3. 2 1. x 7. 5 7. 7. 1  2. 1  05 10. 2 "Jaguar" note 2] 1. 3 6. 5 2. 0 Keynote 10. 1 "Puma" 6. 1 4. 0 "Cheetah" note 3] 2. 4 ^ Messages 8. 0b Archived April 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine was a beta release that only functioned from February 16 to December 12, 2012. Afterwards, users could either revert to iChat or upgrade to a newer version of OS X (10. 8 "Mountain Lion" for US19. 99, or 10. 9 "Mavericks" or newer for free) to continue using Messages. ^ Keynote 1. 0 is the only iLife program that is compatible with Mac OS X 10. 2 "Jaguar. Two minor updates, 1. 1 and 1. 1, can be applied to this version. ^ iTunes 2. 4 can only run if Classic is installed. Otherwise, Mac OS X 10. 0 can only run iTunes 1. 1 natively. Apple offered two main APIs to develop software natively for macOS: Cocoa and Carbon. Cocoa was a descendant of APIs inherited from OPENSTEP with no ancestry from the classic Mac OS, while Carbon was an adaptation of classic Mac OS APIs, allowing Mac software to be minimally rewritten in order to run natively on Mac OS X.  The Cocoa API was created as the result of a 1993 collaboration between NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems. This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers, since the "NS" prefix is ubiquitous in the framework, standing variously for N eXT S TEP or N eXT/ S un. The official OPENSTEP API, published in September 1994, was the first to split the API between Foundation and ApplicationKit and the first to use the "NS" prefix.  Traditionally, Cocoa programs have been mostly written in Objective-C, with Java as an alternative. However, on July 11, 2005, Apple announced that "features added to Cocoa in Mac OS X versions later than 10. 4 will not be added to the Cocoa-Java programming interface. 78] macOS also used to support the Java Platform as a "preferred software package"—in practice this means that applications written in Java fit as neatly into the operating system as possible while still being cross-platform compatible, and that graphical user interfaces written in Swing look almost exactly like native Cocoa interfaces. Since 2014, Apple has promoted its new programming language Swift as the preferred language for software development on Apple platforms. Apple's original plan with macOS was to require all developers to rewrite their software into the Cocoa APIs. This caused much outcry among existing Mac developers, who threatened to abandon the platform rather than invest in a costly rewrite, and the idea was shelved.  79] To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, the Carbon Application Programming Interface (API) was created.  Applications written with Carbon were initially able to run natively on both classic Mac OS and Mac OS X, although this ability was later dropped as Mac OS X developed. Carbon was not included in the first product sold as Mac OS X: the little-used original release of Mac OS X Server 1. 0, which also did not include the Aqua interface.  Apple limited further development of Carbon from the release of Leopard onwards, announcing Carbon applications would not receive the ability to run at 64-bit.  18] A number of macOS applications continued to use Carbon for some time afterwards, especially ones with heritage dating back to the classic Mac OS and for which updates would be difficult, uneconomic or not necessary. This included Microsoft Office up to Office 2016, and Photoshop up to CS5.  79] Early versions of macOS could also run some classic Mac OS applications through the Classic Environment with performance limitations; this feature was removed from 10. 5 onwards and all Macs using Intel processors. Because macOS is POSIX compliant, many software packages written for the other Unix-like systems including Linux can be recompiled to run on it, including much scientific and technical software.  Third-party projects such as Homebrew, Fink, MacPorts and pkgsrc provide pre-compiled or pre-formatted packages. Apple and others have provided versions of the X Window System graphical interface which can allow these applications to run with an approximation of the macOS look-and-feel.  84] 85] The current Apple-endorsed method is the open-source XQuartz project; earlier versions could use the X11 application provided by Apple, or before that the XDarwin project.  Applications can be distributed to Macs and installed by the user from any source and by any method such as downloading (with or without code signing, available via an Apple developer account) or through the Mac App Store, a marketplace of software maintained by Apple by way of a process requiring the company's approval. Apps installed through the Mac App Store run within a sandbox, restricting their ability to exchange information with other applications or modify the core operating system and its features. This has been cited as an advantage, by allowing users to install apps with confidence that they should not be able to damage their system, but also as a disadvantage due to blocking the Mac App Store's use for professional applications that require elevated privileges.  88] Applications without any code signature cannot be run by default except from a computer's administrator account.  90] Apple produces macOS applications, some of which are included and some sold separately. This includes iWork, Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, iLife, and the database application FileMaker. Numerous other developers also offer software for macOS. In 2018 Apple introduced an application layer, reportedly codenamed Marzipan, to port iOS apps to macOS.  92] macOS Mojave included ports of four first-party iOS apps including Home and News, and it was announced that the API would be available for third-party developers to use from 2019.  94] 95] Hardware compatibility List of macOS versions, the supported systems on which they run, and their RAM requirements Supported systems RAM requirement 10. 15 Intel Macs ( 64-bit) released in: 2013 ( Mac Pro) 2012 (other) or later 4 GB 10. 14 Intel Macs ( 64-bit) released in: 2010 ( Mac Pro with compatible graphics card) 2012 (other) or later 2 GB 10. 12 – 10. 13 Intel Macs ( 64-bit) released in: 2009 (iMac and main MacBook line) or later  10. 11 Intel Macs (64-bit) released in: 2007 (prosumer and iMac) 2008 (other consumer) 2009 (Xserve) or later 10. 7 Intel Macs (64-bit) 97] Rosetta support dropped from 10. 7 and newer. 10. 6 Intel Macs (32-bit or 64-bit) 97] 1 GB G4, G5 and Intel Macs (32-bit or 64-bit) at 867 MHz or faster Classic support dropped from 10. 5 and newer. 512 MB Macs with built-in FireWire and either a New World ROM or Intel processor 256 MB Macs with a New World ROM  128 MB 10. 2 G3, G4 and G5 iBook and PowerBook, Power Mac and iMac (except PowerBook G3 "Kanga" Tools such as XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation media have been developed by third parties to enable installation of newer versions of macOS on systems not officially supported by Apple. This includes a number of pre-G3 Power Macintosh systems that can be made to run up to and including Mac OS X 10. 2 Jaguar, all G3-based Macs which can run up to and including Tiger, and sub-867 MHz G4 Macs can run Leopard by removing the restriction from the installation DVD or entering a command in the Mac's Open Firmware interface to tell the Leopard Installer that it has a clock rate of 867 MHz or greater. Except for features requiring specific hardware such as graphics acceleration or DVD writing, the operating system offers the same functionality on all supported hardware. As most Mac hardware components, or components similar to those, since the Intel transition are available for purchase, 99] some technology-capable groups have developed software to install macOS on non-Apple computers. These are referred to as Hackintoshes, a portmanteau of the words "hack" and "Macintosh. This violates Apple's EULA (and is therefore unsupported by Apple technical support, warranties etc. but communities that cater to personal users, who do not install for resale and profit, have generally been ignored by Apple.  101] 102] These self-made computers allow more flexibility and customization of hardware, but at a cost of leaving the user more responsible for their own machine, such as on matter of data integrity or security.  Psystar, a business that attempted to profit from selling macOS on non-Apple certified hardware, was sued by Apple in 2008.  PowerPC–Intel transition Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel processors. In April 2002, eWeek announced a rumor that Apple had a version of Mac OS X code-named Marklar, which ran on Intel x86 processors. The idea behind Marklar was to keep Mac OS X running on an alternative platform should Apple become dissatisfied with the progress of the PowerPC platform.  These rumors subsided until late in May 2005, when various media outlets, such as The Wall Street Journal  and CNET, 107] announced that Apple would unveil Marklar in the coming months.  109] 110] On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced in his keynote address at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference that Apple would be making the transition from PowerPC to Intel processors over the following two years, and that Mac OS X would support both platforms during the transition. Jobs also confirmed rumors that Apple had versions of Mac OS X running on Intel processors for most of its developmental life. Intel-based Macs would run a new recompiled version of OS X along with Rosetta, a binary translation layer which enables software compiled for PowerPC Mac OS X to run on Intel Mac OS X machines.  The system was included with Mac OS X versions up to version 10.  Apple dropped support for Classic mode on the new Intel Macs. Third party emulation software such as Mini vMac, Basilisk II and SheepShaver provided support for some early versions of Mac OS. A new version of Xcode and the underlying command-line compilers supported building universal binaries that would run on either architecture.  PowerPC-only software is supported with Apple's official emulation software, Rosetta, though applications eventually had to be rewritten to run properly on the newer versions released for Intel processors. Apple initially encouraged developers to produce universal binaries with support for both PowerPC and Intel.  There is a performance penalty when PowerPC binaries run on Intel Macs through Rosetta. Moreover, some PowerPC software, such as kernel extensions and System Preferences plugins, are not supported on Intel Macs at all. Some PowerPC applications would not run on macOS at all. Plugins for Safari need to be compiled for the same platform as Safari, so when Safari is running on Intel, it requires plug-ins that have been compiled as Intel-only or universal binaries, so PowerPC-only plug-ins will not work.  While Intel Macs are able to run PowerPC, Intel, and universal binaries; PowerPC Macs support only universal and PowerPC builds. Support for the PowerPC platform was dropped following the transition. In 2009, Apple announced at its Worldwide Developers Conference that Mac OS X 10. 6 Snow Leopard would drop support for PowerPC processors and be Intel-only.  Rosetta continued to be offered as an optional download or installation choice in Snow Leopard before it was discontinued with Mac OS X 10. 7 Lion.  117] In addition, new versions of Mac OS X first- and third-party software increasingly required Intel processors, including new versions of iLife, iWork, Aperture and Logic Pro. Aqua user interface One of the major differences between the classic Mac OS and the current macOS was the addition of Aqua, a graphical user interface with water-like elements, in the first major release of Mac OS X. Every window element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on-screen using spatial anti-aliasing technology.  ColorSync, a technology introduced many years before, was improved and built into the core drawing engine, to provide color matching for printing and multimedia professionals.  Also, drop shadows were added around windows and isolated text elements to provide a sense of depth. New interface elements were integrated, including sheets ( dialog boxes attached to specific windows) and drawers, which would slide out and provide options. The use of soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes, similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs, brought more texture and color to the user interface when compared to what Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X Server 1. 0 's " Platinum " appearance had offered. According to Siracusa, the introduction of Aqua and its departure from the then conventional look "hit like a ton of bricks. 120] Bruce Tognazzini (who founded the original Apple Human Interface Group) said that the Aqua interface in Mac OS X 10. 0 represented a step backwards in usability compared with the original Mac OS interface.  122] Third-party developers started producing skins for customizable applications and other operating systems which mimicked the Aqua appearance. To some extent, Apple has used the successful transition to this new design as leverage, at various times threatening legal action against people who make or distribute software with an interface the company says is derived from its copyrighted design.  Apple has continued to change aspects of the macOS appearance and design, particularly with tweaks to the appearance of windows and the menu bar. Since 2012, Apple has sold many of its Mac models with high-resolution Retina displays, and macOS and its APIs have extensive support for resolution-independent development on supporting high-resolution displays. Reviewers have described Apple's support for the technology as superior to that on Windows.  125] 126] The human interface guidelines published by Apple for macOS are followed by many applications, giving them consistent user interface and keyboard shortcuts.  In addition, new services for applications are included, which include spelling and grammar checkers, special characters palette, color picker, font chooser and dictionary; these global features are present in every Cocoa application, adding consistency. The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to allow hardware-accelerated drawing. This technology, introduced in version 10. 2, is called Quartz Extreme, a component of Quartz. Quartz's internal imaging model correlates well with the Portable Document Format (PDF) imaging model, making it easy to output PDF to multiple devices.  As a side result, PDF viewing and creating PDF documents from any application are built-in features.  Reflecting its popularity with design users, macOS also has system support for a variety of professional video and image formats and includes an extensive pre-installed font library, featuring many prominent brand-name designs.  The Finder is a file browser allowing quick access to all areas of the computer, which has been modified throughout subsequent releases of macOS.  131] Quick Look is part of the Finder since version 10. It allows for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-page documents without opening any other applications. Spotlight, a file searching technology which has been integrated into the Finder since version 10. 4, allows rapid real-time searches of data files; mail messages; photos; and other information based on item properties (metadata) and/or content.  133] macOS makes use of a Dock, which holds file and folder shortcuts as well as minimized windows. Apple added "Exposé" in version 10. 3 (called Mission Control since version 10. 7) a feature which includes three functions to help accessibility between windows and desktop. Its functions are to instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for easy navigation to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the current application, and hide all windows to access the desktop.  Also, FileVault was introduced, which is an optional encryption of the user's files with the 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128. 135] Features introduced in version 10. 4 include Automator, an application designed to create an automatic workflow for different tasks; 136] Dashboard, a full-screen group of small applications called desktop widgets that can be called up and dismissed in one keystroke; 137] and Front Row, a media viewer interface accessed by the Apple Remote.  Moreover, the Sync Services were included, which is a system that allows applications to access a centralized extensible database for various elements of user data, including calendar and contact items. The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency.  All system icons are scalable up to 512×512 pixels as of version 10. 5 to accommodate various places where they appear in larger size, including for example the Cover Flow view, a three-dimensional graphical user interface included with iTunes, the Finder, and other Apple products for visually skimming through files and digital media libraries via cover artwork. That version also introduced Spaces, a virtual desktop implementation which enables the user to have more than one desktop and display them in an Exposé-like interface; 140] an automatic backup technology called Time Machine, which provides the ability to view and restore previous versions of files and application data; 141] and Screen Sharing was built in for the first time.  In more recent releases, Apple has developed support for emoji characters by including the proprietary Apple Color Emoji font.  144] Apple has also connected macOS with social networks such as Twitter and Facebook through the addition of share buttons for content such as pictures and text.  Apple has brought several applications and features that originally debuted in iOS, its mobile operating system, to macOS in recent releases, notably the intelligent personal assistant Siri, which was introduced in version 10. 12 of macOS.  147] Multilingual support There are 39 system languages available in macOS for the user at the moment of installation; the system language is used throughout the entire operating system environment.  Input methods for typing in dozens of scripts can be chosen independently of the system language.  Recent updates have added increased support for Chinese characters and interconnections with popular social networks in China.  150] 151] 152] Updating methods macOS can be updated using the Software Update preference pane in System Preferences or the softwareupdate command line utility. Until OS X 10. 8 Mountain Lion, a separate Software Update application performed this functionality. In Mountain Lion and later, this was merged into the Mac App Store application, although the underlying update mechanism remains unchanged and is fundamentally different than the download mechanism used when purchasing an App Store application. In macOS 10. 14 Mojave, the updating function was moved again to the Software Update preference pane. Release history Box/Mac App Store artwork for every version of macOS. Left to right: Cheetah / Puma (1) Jaguar (2) Panther (3) Tiger (4) Leopard (5) Snow Leopard (6) Lion (7) Mountain Lion (8) Mavericks (9) Yosemite (10) El Capitan (11) Sierra (12) High Sierra (13) and Mojave (14. Mac OS X, OS X, and macOS version information Version Codename Darwin version Processor support Application support Kernel Date announced Release date Most recent version Rhapsody Developer Release Grail1Z4 / Titan1U 32-bit PowerPC 32-bit January 7, 1997  August 31, 1997 DR2 (May 14, 1998) Mac OS X Server 1. 0 Hera Unknown March 16, 1999 1. 2v3 (October 27, 2000) Mac OS X Developer Preview May 11, 1998  DP4 (April 5, 2000) Mac OS X Public Beta Kodiak  1. 1 May 15, 2000  September 13, 2000 Mac OS X 10. 0 Cheetah 1. 1 January 9, 2001  March 24, 2001 10. 4 (June 22, 2001) Mac OS X 10. 1 Puma 1. 1 / 5 July 18, 2001  September 25, 2001 10. 5 (June 6, 2002) Mac OS X 10. 2 Jaguar 6 32/64-bit PowerPC [Note 1] May 6, 2002  August 24, 2002 10. 8 (October 3, 2003) Mac OS X 10. 3 Panther 7 32/64-bit PowerPC June 23, 2003  October 24, 2003 10. 9 (April 15, 2005) Mac OS X 10. 4 Tiger 8 32/64-bit PowerPC and Intel 32/64-bit [Note 2] PowerPC [Note 3] and Intel May 4, 2004  April 29, 2005 10. 11 (November 14, 2007) Mac OS X 10. 5 Leopard 9 32/64-bit PowerPC [Note 3] and Intel June 26, 2006  October 26, 2007 10. 8 (August 5, 2009) Mac OS X 10. 6 Snow Leopard 10 32/64-bit Intel 32/64-bit Intel 32-bit PowerPC [Note 3] 32/64-bit  June 9, 2008  August 28, 2009 10. 8 v1. 1 (July 25, 2011) Mac OS X 10. 7 Lion 11 64-bit Intel October 20, 2010  July 20, 2011 10. 5 (September 19, 2012) OS X 10. 8 Mountain Lion 12 64-bit  February 16, 2012  July 25, 2012  10. 5 (12F45) October 3, 2013) OS X 10. 9 Mavericks 13 June 10, 2013  October 22, 2013 10. 9. 5 (13F1112) September 18, 2014) 170] OS X 10. 10 Yosemite 14 June 2, 2014  October 16, 2014 10. 10. 5 (14F27) August 13, 2015) OS X 10. 11 El Capitan 15 June 8, 2015  September 30, 2015 10. 11. 6 (15G31) July 18, 2016) macOS 10. 12 Sierra 16 June 13, 2016  September 20, 2016 10. 12. 6 (16G29) July 19, 2017) macOS 10. 13 High Sierra 17 June 5, 2017 September 25, 2017 10. 13. 6 (17G65) July 9, 2018) macOS 10. 14 Mojave 18 June 4, 2018 September 24, 2018 10. 14. 6 (18G84) July 22, 2019) macOS 10. 15 Catalina 19 June 3, 2019 October 7, 2019 10. 3 (19D76) January 28, 2020) Note 1 The PowerMac G5 had special Jaguar builds. Note 2 Tiger did not support 64-bit GUI applications, only 64-bit CLI applications. Note 3 32-bit PowerPC applications were supported on Intel processors with Rosetta. With the exception of Mac OS X Server 1. 0 and the original public beta, OS X versions were named after big cats until OS X 10. 9 Mavericks, when Apple switched to using California locations. Prior to its release, Mac OS X 10. 0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and Mac OS X 10. 1 was code named internally as "Puma. After the immense buzz surrounding Mac OS X 10. 2, codenamed "Jaguar" Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. 3 was marketed as "Panther" Mac OS X 10. 4 as "Tiger" Mac OS X 10. 5 as "Leopard" Mac OS X 10. 6 as "Snow Leopard" Mac OS X 10. 7 as "Lion" OS X 10. 8 as "Mountain Lion" and OS X 10. 9 as "Mavericks. "Panther. Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple, 174] 175] 176] but "Cheetah. Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse.  178] Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger. On May 16, 2005 a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use did not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.  On September 13, 2000, Apple released a 29. 95  preview" version of Mac OS X internally codenamed Kodiak in order to gain feedback from users. The "PB" as it was known, marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.  Mac OS X 10. 0 Cheetah On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X 10. 0 (internally codenamed Cheetah. 182] The initial version was slow, 183] incomplete, 184] and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers.  While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve.  Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, 184] for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent. citation needed] Mac OS X 10. 1 Puma Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X 10. 1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It featured increased performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10. 1 as a free upgrade CD for 10. 0 users, in addition to the US129 boxed version for people running Mac OS 9. It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems.  On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.  Mac OS X 10. 2 Jaguar On August 23, 2002, 188] Apple followed up with Mac OS X 10. 2 Jaguar, the first release to use its code name as part of the branding.  It brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple [190. including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat.  The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.  Mac OS X 10. 3 Panther Mac OS X v10. 3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user switching, Exposé (Window manager) FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added videoconferencing features to iChat) improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability.  Support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued.  Mac OS X 10. 4 Tiger Mac OS X 10. 4 Tiger was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features.  As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with 256 MB and a built-in FireWire port.  Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10. 4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release lacking support for the Classic environment.  Mac OS X 10. 5 Leopard Mac OS X 10. 5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X. It brought more than 300 new features.  Leopard supports both PowerPC - and Intel x86 -based Macintosh computers; support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines. New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp pre-installed, 198] full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications) new features in Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first BSD-based OS to receive UNIX 03 certification.  199] Leopard dropped support for the Classic Environment and all Classic applications.  It was the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture.  Mac OS X 10. 6 Snow Leopard Mac OS X 10. 6 Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10. 5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and user-friendly disk ejects, a more powerful version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web browser. Snow Leopard only supported machines with Intel CPUs, required at least 1 GB of RAM, and dropped default support for applications built for the PowerPC architecture ( Rosetta could be installed as an additional component to retain support for PowerPC-only applications. 202] Snow Leopard also featured new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch, and advanced GPU performance with OpenCL.  The 10. 6 update introduced support for the Mac App Store, Apple's digital distribution platform for macOS applications.  Mac OS X 10. 7 Lion Mac OS X 10. 7 Lion was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incompatible with PowerPC applications.  Changes made to the GUI include auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are being used, and Mission Control which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface.  Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed, similar to iOS. Documents auto-save by default.  OS X 10. 8 Mountain Lion OS X 10. 8 Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012.  Following the release of Lion the previous year, it was the first of the annual rather than two-yearly updates to OS X (and later macOS) which also closely aligned with the annual iOS operating system updates. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app. It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud.  Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5. 0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, and services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.  Starting with Mountain Lion, Apple software updates (including the OS) are distributed via the App Store.  This updating mechanism replaced the Apple Software Update utility.  A screenshot of OS X Mavericks OS X 10. 9 Mavericks OS X 10. 9 Mavericks was released on October 22, 2013. It was a free upgrade to all users running Snow Leopard or later with a 64-bit Intel processor.  Its changes include the addition of the previously iOS-only Maps and iBooks applications, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several applications, and many under-the-hood improvements.  OS X 10. 10 Yosemite OS X 10. 10 Yosemite was released on October 16, 2014. It features a redesigned user interface similar to that of iOS 7, intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with use of translucency effects and intensely saturated colors.  Apple's showcase new feature in Yosemite is Handoff, which enables users with iPhones running iOS 8. 1 or later to answer phone calls, receive and send SMS messages, and complete unfinished iPhone emails on their Mac. As of OS X 10. 3, Photos replaced iPhoto and Aperture.  OS X 10. 11 El Capitan OS X 10. 11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015. Similar to Mac OS X 10. 6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as containing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance" rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection. The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012. 214] According to Apple, Metal accelerates system-level rendering by up to 50 percent, resulting in faster graphics performance for everyday apps. Metal also delivers up to 10 times faster draw call performance for more fluid experience in games and pro apps.  macOS 10. 12 Sierra macOS 10. 12 Sierra was released to the public on September 20, 2016. New features include the addition of Siri, Optimized Storage, and updates to Photos, Messages, and iTunes.  217] macOS 10. 13 High Sierra macOS 10. 13 High Sierra was released to the public on September 25, 2017.  Like OS X El Capitan and OS X Mountain Lion, High Sierra is a refinement-based update having very few new features visible to a user, including updates to Safari, Photos, and Mail, among other changes.  The major change under the hood is the switch to the Apple File System, which is optimized for solid-state storage used in most new Mac computers.  macOS 10. 14 Mojave macOS 10. 14 Mojave was released on September 24, 2018.  The update introduced a system-wide dark mode and several new apps lifted from iOS, such as Apple News. macOS 10. 15 Catalina macOS 10. 15 Catalina was released on October 7, 2019.  Updates included enhanced voice control, and bundled apps for music, video, and podcasts that together replace the functions of iTunes, with support for 32-bit applications being officially dropped.  Reception As of July 2016, macOS is the second-most-active general-purpose desktop client operating system in use on the World Wide Web following Microsoft Windows, with a 4. 90% usage share according to statistics compiled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is the second most widely used desktop operating system (for web browsing) after Windows, and is estimated at approximately five times the usage of Linux (which has 1. 01. Usage share generally continues to shift away from the desktop and toward mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android.  Malware and spyware In its earlier years, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that have affected Microsoft Windows users.  225] 226] macOS has a smaller usage share compared to Windows, 227] but it also has traditionally more secure Unix roots. Worms, as well as potential vulnerabilities, were noted in 2006, which led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware.  Increasing market share coincided with additional reports of a variety of attacks.  In early 2011, Mac OS X experienced a large increase in malware attacks, 230] and malware such as Mac Defender, MacProtector, and MacGuard were seen as an increasing problem for Mac users. At first, the malware installer required the user to enter the administrative password, but later versions were able to install without user input.  Initially, Apple support staff were instructed not to assist in the removal of the malware or admit the existence of the malware issue, but as the malware spread, a support document was issued. Apple announced an OS X update to fix the problem. An estimated 100, 000 users were affected.  233] Apple releases security updates for macOS on a regular basis, 234] as well as signature files for Xprotect, an anti-malware feature part of File Quarantine present since Mac OS X Snow Leopard.  Promotion As a devices company, Apple has mostly promoted macOS to sell Macs, with promotion of macOS updates focused on existing users, promotion at Apple Store and other retail partners, or through events for developers. 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Guys wag po nating gawing biro dahil heto ay hudyat na😞 nakakatakot yung 2020 dahil madaming nangyayare😞 lalo na sa ibang bansa may naalala ako nabasa ko sa bible about sa volcano, tas pati rin na may maglalaban laban😞 huhu skl ko Lang guys.
Thank you po doc❤.
Final Cut Pro provides a wide variety of menu commands and keyboard shortcuts that let you control almost every aspect of your project, from playback to displaying windows and inspectors to working with tools. The Command Editor provides a set of Final Cut Pro keyboard shortcuts in English, Japanese, French, and German. The language that is shown is determined by your computers operating system. To learn how to change the language used by Final Cut Pro, see macOS Help, available from the Help menu when the Finder is active. View standard keyboard shortcuts Choose Final Cut Pro > Commands > Customize (or press Option-Command-K. The Command Editor appears. To find keyboard shortcuts in the Command Editor, do any of the following: Click one or more keys on the virtual keyboard (or click one of the four modifier key buttons at the top of the Command Editor. The command groups, or categories, associated with the selected key or keys appear in the bottom-left corner of the window, and a list of all the keyboard shortcuts associated with the key or keys appears in the bottom-right corner of the window. When you press any modifier key on your keyboard, or click any modifier key button to select it, the key colors update. Key colors correspond with command groups; for example, editing commands, such as Overwrite (D) are blue. The clickable list of command groups in the bottom-left corner of the Command Editor contains a color key for reference. Enter a command name, description keywords, or a key name in the search field at the top-right corner of the window. The commands that match the search term appear in the command list at the bottom of the window. Tip: To show the keys that correspond with the items in the command list, click the Keyboard Highlight button to the left of the search field. Click any command in the list to view a description in the detail area on the right. Click a command group to quickly filter the command list to display only the commands and keyboard shortcuts in that group. View shortcuts from a different command set If your system has multiple command sets, you can easily switch between them. See Export or import keyboard shortcuts with Final Cut Pro. In Final Cut Pro, do one of the following: Choose Final Cut Pro > Commands, then choose a command set from the submenu. The Command Editor window appears, showing the command set you chose. If youve already opened the Command Editor, click the pop-up menu in the top-left corner of the window and choose a command set.
Thank you for the info, appreciate your caring for Filipino people, for being part of the community.
This disaster plus action movie is exciting from big disaster scene near the beginning to the very end. The effects are as good as any Western blockbuster and the battle sequences are exciting and well choreographed. The characters are funny and quite endearing. The story is more complex than expected with a good amount of humour and some political subplot involving nukes North South China and US. Good use of some big name Korean stars.
Worth a watch. เกาหลีหนังล้ำหน้าไทยไปเยอะกล้าทำหนังแบบนี้ หนังซอมบี้ โดยที่ลงทุนมากต่างจากไทยที่ไม่กล้าทำ.
Sana irescue rin ung mga hayop dyan😕nakakaawa lng kasi. Meanwhile in North Korea, Mt. Paektu watches the diaster and listens to her favourite song lets go to. Print view Different Frame Rates? Message tspence Posts: 5 Joined: Fri Apr 20, 2018 2:32 pm Real Name: Tim Spencer Wed Apr 25, 2018 11:50 am In Resolve 15 is it possible to combine two clips with different frame rates - say 30 fps and 60 fps and both will play at their native frame rates? Thanks- Wed Apr 25, 2018 6:05 pm Right click on media file - Attributes. You can change the frame rate to match the project frame rate. The clip will then play frame by frame, without any frame rate conversion. If you just drop each clip on the timeline the frame rate gets converted automatically to match the project frame rate. So the clip plays at realtime speed. The method for converting frame rates is in Project Settings/Master Settings. Wed Apr 25, 2018 6:52 pm Thanks George. I'm a bit confused: You can change the frame rate to match the project frame rate. Does this mean a clip of 60 fps will play at 30 fps if 30 is the project frame rate? So it will drop every other frame? If you just drop each clip on the timeline the frame rate gets converted automatically to match the project frame rate. Meaning 30 plays at 30 and 60 plays at 60? Thank you and sorry for the confusion. Cary Knoop Posts: 1224 Joined: Sun Mar 12, 2017 6:35 pm Location: Newark, CA USA Wed Apr 25, 2018 7:43 pm tspence wrote: In Resolve 15 is it possible to combine two clips with different frame rates - say 30 fps and 60 fps and both will play at their native frame rates? It's 2018 and it is not so far out to expect a video to be able to smoothly play different segments at different frame rates but as far as I know that technology is not (yet) available. Last edited by Cary Knoop on Wed Apr 25, 2018 8:43 pm, edited 1 time in total. Wed Apr 25, 2018 8:34 pm What would be the purpose of that? It all ends up a single clip. If it becomes necessary to render masters at different frame rates, pick 120fps project frame rate. Tom Early Posts: 1298 Joined: Wed Jul 17, 2013 11:01 am Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:43 pm tspence wrote: Does this mean a clip of 60 fps will play at 30 fps if 30 is the project frame rate? So it will drop every other frame? It will drop every other frame in a 30fps project if it plays at 60fps, not 30. Timelines can't just switch frame rates, they are locked to one frame rate, so if 1 second of a 60fps source clip is to play back in real time in a timeline of a lower frame rate then it will have to skip frames at regular intervals. If you do NOT want it to skip frames then a source clip of 60fps will only have the first 30 of those played back in 1 second of a 30fps timeline, and so it will effectively play back at half speed. MBP2016, MacOS 10. 14. 6, 2. 9 GHz Intel Core i7, 16 GB 2133 MHz LPDDR3, Radeon Pro 460 4096 MB, Resolve Studio 16. 1. 005 Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:52 pm George Deierling wrote: What would be the purpose of that? It all ends up a single clip. If it becomes necessary to render masters at different frame rates, pick 120fps project frame rate. Practically, though, you're looking at 705, 600, 000fps, because 120fps can't, for instance, hold 72fps content. Chad Capeland Indicated, LLC Wed Apr 25, 2018 11:40 pm I get the point. Hopefully BM will tackle the locked project frame rate issue and let us deliver at different frame rates. Then source frame rate won't matter. But I suspect of all the things that need work, its not the most hard pressing. Thu Apr 26, 2018 1:23 am Selection bias. Anyone who does work at different framerates isn't using the beta because they aren't using Resolve. Thu Apr 26, 2018 2:28 pm Chad Capeland wrote: George Deierling wrote: What would be the purpose of that? It all ends up a single clip. Practically, though, you're looking at 705, 600, 000fps, because 120fps can't, for instance, hold 72fps content. Not really, 360fps would be sufficient. Thu Apr 26, 2018 3:39 pm Thanks all. Here is the clip in question: The 1st part was recorded at 30 fps. At 3:51, the 2nd clip starts - was recorded at 60 fps. The project setting was 30 fps. It is playing back at normal speed - so Resolve dropped every other frame correct? What would have happened if I had the project settings set at 60 fps? 2nd clip would have been fine but the 1st would have played 2x faster than recorded? Jean Claude Posts: 2973 Joined: Sun Jun 28, 2015 4:41 pm Location: France Thu Apr 26, 2018 5:01 pm tspence wrote: Thanks all. What would have happened if I had the project settings set at 60 fps? 2nd clip would have been fine but the 1st would have played 2x faster than recorded? You should try: A project / TL at 60 fps. install the 2nd clip (60 fps) first. install the 1st clip (30 FPS) in a project at 60 FPS (keep the clip at 30 fps) Leave the clip attribute of the clip at 30 fps (clip 1st. Change the project setting: master settings. Frame Interpolation: Retime Process: Optical Flow Motion Estimation: Enhanced Better Motion Range. Larger? Medium? Small? In your example: in theory) From 60 fps to 30 FPS: There is (according to the project setting: master settings. Frame Interpolation) Blend, nearest or interpolation (which has been improved for a long time but has never been an exact science) If shooting is by far, you will not have much difference, but if it's close: depending on the angle and speed of action: you will have different results: especially on certain verticals. "Saying it is good, but doing it is better. Win10-1809, Resolve Studio V16. 1, Fusion Studio V16. 1, Decklink 4K Extreme 6G, RTX 2080Ti 431. 86 NSD driver! Thu Apr 26, 2018 8:19 pm You might have to start over with a fresh project. Before you do anything set project frame rate to 60fps (or 59. 94) Once you add clips to the media page you cannot change the frame rate anymore. Fri Apr 27, 2018 1:38 pm Jean Claude & George - Thank you both. Fri Apr 27, 2018 5:23 pm +1 I need to be able to reformat and retime for multiple outputs yes some projects need both a PAL and an NTSC out imac/hackintosh 14, 2 (4-core 4. 0 GHz i7. 32GB - 980Ti OS X 10. 13. 6 / 15. 3 Resolve Studio - DeckLink Studio 4k 10Gb ethernet network Fri Apr 27, 2018 8:45 pm If you want possibility to mix any fps (and then have any fps output) then forget about it as it requires fps conversion and this is crazy difficult. People for whatever reason don't understand that 25p or 23. 976p source can't be just like that dropped into eg 29. 97p timeline (well it can if you're happy with crappy blended output. This can be done (easily) only if files have the same time base, so eg. 25p, 50p, 50i etc. BM can enable fps change, but this will be the biggest cause of crappy masters as people will use it in "bad way. They will do eg 25p timeline (with 25p source assets) and when asked for 29. 97 output they will simply switch fps and export and think that it's as simple as this. It's not! Such a thing would only work if someone had created 99% reliable motion adaptive fps conversion engine, but this atm. doesn't exist. It's crazy difficult to do and this is the reason why Alchemist and Tachyon cost serious money (even if they are not always perfect either. If such a engine would exist we could also shot everything at 1 fps and then create all needed masters. Good luck with it It will be probably simpler to agree on 1 new fps for worldwide use than this Last edited by Andrew Kolakowski on Fri Apr 27, 2018 8:53 pm, edited 1 time in total. Fri Apr 27, 2018 8:52 pm Andrew Kolakowski wrote: If you want possibility to mix any fps (and then have any fps output) then forget about it as it requires fps conversion and this is crazy difficult. I am curious about your opinion on this. It's 2018 what technically stops us form having a codec and video player support different segments having different frame rates in the same file? Fri Apr 27, 2018 9:01 pm This is a different subject. Variable frame rate idea has been/is "present" but it comes with its own problems also. It would require some special approach to metadata, sync etc (not mentioning TVs and need for adaptive refresh rate engine. Atm. we can't even store color space info reliably I don't know when it will happen, but taking into account that broadcast is still far from being at least HD (due to all legacy hardware and lack of investment) it won't be any time soon. Codec is not a problem here. Sat Apr 28, 2018 2:39 am Cary Knoop wrote: Chad Capeland wrote: George Deierling wrote: What would be the purpose of that? It all ends up a single clip. Not really, 360fps would be sufficient. Not for 75fps content. 705, 600, 000 covers a lot of framerates without the precision issues of float. Sat Apr 28, 2018 5:38 am The least common denominator between 1/120 and 1/72, which is what we were talking about, is 360. charlzm Posts: 1 Joined: Fri Jul 27, 2018 7:53 pm Real Name: Charles Mumford Fri Jul 27, 2018 8:01 pm So let me make sure I understand the workflow here. I want to edit a music video. The first cameraman/director shot at 23. 976 fps. I was the director/camerman for the rest of the shoot. I wanted to get the slo-mo-in-real-time looks, so I shot at 60p with the band members miming to a double-speed onset music playback. The idea is that when this footage is shown at 30p, it will have an interesting look and still be "in time" with the music. Some footage was also shot at 30p. So. I need to convert the "24p" footage to 30p to edit it in the same timeline as the 30p footage, Okay. But what would I do to the 60p to get it to play back at the "right" speed in 30p? A timeline that could handle different playback frame rates in one timeline would be very useful for projects like this one. Fri Aug 17, 2018 3:59 am Imagine as well a project that needs to deliver at multiple framerates. Currently can't do that in Resolve. Uli Plank Posts: 5497 Joined: Fri Feb 08, 2013 2:48 am Fri Aug 17, 2018 4:06 am Re-conform that faster footage to your timeline fps and then play with the speed options. What would be the use of throwing 60 fps into a 24 fps timeline and just drop all the extra frames? And a timeline with changing fps in it? What would be the final delivery? I don't know of any format that is adapting it's speed dynamically at playback. Resolve Studio and Fusion Studio under MacOS Mojave 10. 6 iMac 2017 Radeon Pro 580 8 GB VRAM and 32 GB RAM Mac mini 16 GB RAM plus eGFX Breakway Radeon RX 580 Return to DaVinci Resolve Who is online Users browsing this forum: Google [Bot] Jeremy, Peter Chamberlain, Uli Plank and 38 guests.
We will stand taller after the eruption. Mabuhay. Lol... When Teen Wolf is running away from chaos instead of facing it like a wolf 😂. In Firefox 70 we changed how pixels get to the screen on macOS. This allows us to do less work per frame when only small parts of the screen change. As a result, Firefox 70 drastically reduces the power usage during browsing. Power usage, in Watts, as displayed by Intel Power Gadget. Lower numbers are better. In short, Firefox 70 improves power usage by 3x or more for many use cases. The larger the Firefox window and the smaller the animation, the bigger the difference. Users have reported much longer battery life, cooler machines and less fan spinning. Im seeing a huge improvement over here too (2015 13″ MacBook Pro with scaled resolutions on internal display as well as external 4K display. Prior to this update I literally couldnt use Firefox because it would spin my fans way up and slow down my whole computer. Thank you, Im very happy to finally see Core Animation being implemented. Charlie Siegel After so many years, I have been able to use Firefox on my Mac – I used to test every Firefox release, and nothing had worked in the past. Vivek Kapoor I usually try nightly builds every few weeks but end up going back to Edge Chromium or Chrome for speed and lack of heat. This makes my 2015 mbp without a dedicated dGPU become a power sipper compared to earlier builds. atiensivu Read on for the technical details behind these changes. Technical Details Lets take a brief look at how the Firefox compositing pipeline works. There are three major steps to getting pixels on the screen: Step 1: Firefox draws pixels into “Gecko layers”. Step 2: The Firefox “compositor” assembles these Gecko layers to produce the rendering of the window. Step 3: The operating systems window manager assembles all windows on the screen to produce the screen content. The improvements in Firefox 70 were the result of reducing the work in steps 2 and 3: In both steps, we were doing work for the entire window, even if only a small part of the window was updating. Why was our compositor always redrawing the entire window? The main reason was the lack of convenient APIs on macOS for partial compositing. The Firefox compositor on macOS makes use of hardware acceleration via OpenGL. Apples OpenGL documentation recommends the following method of getting OpenGL content to the screen: You create an NSOpenGLContext, you attach it to an NSView (using - NSOpenGLContext setView. and then you render to the contexts default framebuffer, filling the entire framebuffer with fresh content. At the end of each frame, you call - NSOpenGLContext flushBuffer. This updates the screen with your rendered content. The crucial limitation here is that flushBuffer gives you no way to indicate which parts of the OpenGL context have changed. This is a limitation which does not exist on Windows: On Windows, the corresponding API has full support for partial redraws. Every Firefox window contains one OpenGL context, which covers the entire window. Firefox 69 was using the API described above. So we were always redrawing the whole window on every change, and the window manager was always copying our entire window to the screen on every change. This turned out to be a problem despite the fact that these draws were fully hardware accelerated. Enter Core Animation Core Animation is the name of an Apple framework which lets you create a tree of layers ( CALayer. These layers usually contain textures with some pixel content. The layer tree defines the positions, sizes, and order of the layers within the window. Starting with macOS 10. 14, all windows use Core Animation by default, as a way to share their rendering with the window manager. So, does Core Animation have an API which lets us indicate which areas inside an OpenGL context have changed? No, unfortunately it does not. However, it provides a number of other useful capabilities, which are almost as good and in some cases even better. First and foremost, Core Animation lets us share a GPU buffer with the window manager in a way that minimizes copies: We can create an IOSurface and render to it directly using OpenGL by treating it as an offscreen framebuffer, and we can assign that IOSurface to a CALayer. Then, when the window manager composites that CALayer onto the screen surface, it will read directly from our GPU buffer with no additional copies. (IOSurface is the macOS API which provides a handle to a GPU buffer that can be shared between processes. Its worth noting that the ability to assign an IOSurface to the CALayer contents property is not properly documented. Nevertheless, all major browsers on macOS now make use of this API. ) Secondly, Core Animation lets us display OpenGL rendering in multiple places within the window at the same time and update it in a synchronized fashion. This was not possible with the old API we were using: Without Core Animation, we would have needed to create multiple NSViews, each with their own NSOpenGLContext, and then call flushBuffer on each context on every frame. There would have been no guarantee that the rendering from the different contexts would end up on the screen at the same time. But with Core Animation, we can just group updates from multiple layers into the same CATransaction, and the screen will be updated atomically. Having multiple layers allows us to update just parts of the window: Whenever a layer is mutated in any way, the window manager will redraw an area that includes the bounds of that layer, rather than the bounds of the entire window. And we can mark individual layers as opaque or transparent. This cuts down the window managers work some more for areas of the window that only contain opaque layers. With the old API, if any part of our OpenGL contexts default framebuffer was transparent, we needed to make the entire OpenGL context transparent. Lastly, Core Animation allows us to move rendered content around in the window cheaply. This is great for efficient scrolling. (Our current compositor does not yet make use of this capability, but future work in WebRender will take advantage of it. ) The Firefox Core Animation compositor How do we make use of those capabilities in Firefox now? The most important change is that Firefox is now in full control of its swap chain. In the past, we were asking for a double-buffered OpenGL context, and our rendering to the default framebuffer was relying on the built-in swap chain. So on every frame, we could guess that the existing framebuffer content was probably two frames old, but we could never know for sure. Because of this, we just ignored the framebuffer content and re-rendered the entire buffer. In the new world, Firefox renders to offscreen buffers of its own creation and it knows exactly which pixels of each buffer need to be updated and which pixels still contain valid content. This allows us to reduce the work in step 2 drastically: Our compositor can now finally do partial redraws. This change on its own is responsible for most of the power savings. In addition, each Firefox window is now “tiled” into multiple square Core Animation layers whose contents are rendered separately. This cuts down on work in step 3. And finally, Firefox windows are additionally split into transparent and opaque parts: Transparent CALayers cover the “vibrant” portions of the window, and opaque layers cover the rest of the window. This saves some more work in step 3. It also means that the window manager does not need to redraw the vibrancy blur effect unless something in the vibrant part of the window changes. The rendering pipeline in Firefox on macOS now looks as follows: Step 2: For each square CALayer tile in the window, the Firefox compositor combines the relevant Gecko layers to redraw the changed parts of that CALayer. Step 3: The operating systems window manager assembles all updated windows and CALayers on the screen to produce the screen content. You can use the Quartz Debug app to visualize the improvements in step 3. Using the “Flash screen updates” setting, you can see that the window managers repaint area in Firefox 70 (on the right) is a lot smaller when a tab is loading in the background: And in this screenshot with the “Show opaque regions” feature, you can see that Firefox now marks most of the window as opaque (green) Future Work We are planning to build onto this work to improve other browsing use cases: Scrolling and full screen video can be made even more efficient by using Core Animation in smarter ways. We are targeting WebRender for these further optimizations. This will allow us to ship WebRender on macOS without a power regression. Acknowledgements We implemented these changes with over 100 patches distributed among 28 bugzilla bugs. Matt Woodrow reviewed the vast majority of these patches. I would like to thank everybody involved for their hard work. Thanks to Firefox contributor Mark, who identified the severity of this problem early on, provided sound evidence, and was very helpful with testing. And thanks to all the other testers that made sure this change didnt introduce any bugs, and to everyone who followed along on Bugzilla. During the research phase of this project, the Chrome source code and the public Chrome development notes turned out to be an invaluable resource. Chrome developers (mostly Chris Cameron) had already done the hard work of comparing the power usage of various rendering methods on macOS. Their findings accelerated our research and allowed us to implement the most efficient approach right from the start. Questions and Answers Are there similar problems on other platforms? Firefox uses partial compositing on some platforms and GPU combinations, but not on all of them. Notably, partial compositing is enabled in Firefox on Windows for non-WebRender, non-Nvidia systems on reasonably recent versions of Windows, and on all systems where hardware acceleration is off. Firefox currently does not use partial compositing on Linux or Android. OpenGL on macOS is deprecated. Would Metal have posed similar problems? In some ways yes, in other ways no. Fundamentally, in order to get Metal content to the screen, you have to use Core Animation: you need a CAMetalLayer. However, there are no APIs for partial updates of CAMetalLayers either, so youd need to implement a solution with smaller layers similarly to what was done here. As for Firefox, we are planning to add a Metal back-end to WebRender in the future, and stop using OpenGL on machines that support Metal. Why was this only a problem now? Did power usage get worse in Firefox 57? As far as we are aware, the power problem did not start with Firefox Quantum. The OpenGL compositor has always been drawing the entire window ever since Firefox 4, which was the first version of Firefox that came with hardware acceleration. We believe this problem became more serious over time simply because screen resolutions increased. Especially the switch to retina resolutions was a big jump in the number of pixels per window. What do other browsers do? Chromes compositor tries to use Core Animation as much as it can and has a fallback path for some rare unhandled cases. And Safaris compositor is entirely Core Animation based; Safari basically skips step 2. Why does hardware accelerated rendering have such a high power cost per pixel? The huge degree to which these changes affected power usage surprised us. We have come up with some explanations, but this question probably deserves its own blog post. Heres a summary: At a low level, the compositing work in step 2 and step 3 is just copying of memory using the GPU. Integrated GPUs share their L3 cache and main memory with the CPU. So they also share the memory bandwidth. Compositing is mostly memory bandwidth limited: The destination pixels have to be read, the source texture pixels have to be read, and then the destination pixel writes have to be pushed back into memory. A screen worth of pixels takes up around 28MB at the default scaled retina resolution (1680×1050@2x. This is usually too big for the L3 cache, for example the L3 cache in my machine is 8MB big. So each screenful of one layer of compositing takes up 3 * 28MB of memory bandwidth. My machine has a memory bandwidth of ~28GB/s, so each screenful of compositing takes about 3 milliseconds. We believe that the GPU runs at full frequency while it waits for memory. So you can estimate the power usage by checking how long the GPU runs each frame. How does this affect WebRenders architecture? Wasnt the point of WebRender to redraw the entire window every frame? These findings have informed substantial changes to WebRenders architecture. WebRender is now adding support for native layers and caching, so that unnecessary redraws can be avoided. WebRender still aims to be able to redraw the entire window at full frame rate, but it now takes advantage of caching in order to reduce power usage. Being able to paint quickly allows more flexibility and fewer performance cliffs when making layerization decisions. Details about the measurements in the chart: These numbers were collected from test runs on a Macbook Pro (Retina, 15-inch, Early 2013) with an Intel HD Graphics 4000, on macOS 10. 14. 6, with the default Firefox window size of a new Firefox profile, at a resolution of 1680×1050@2x, at medium display brightness. The numbers come from the PKG measurement as displayed by the Intel Power Gadget app. The power usage in the idle state on this machine is 3. 6W, so we subtracted the 3. 6W baseline from the displayed values for the numbers in the chart in order to get a sense of Firefoxs contribution. Here are the numbers used in the chart (after the subtraction of the 3. 6W idle baseline) Scrolling: before: 16. 4W, after: 9. 4W Spinning Square: before: 12. 8W, after: 2. 9W YouTube Video: before: 28. 4W, after: 16. 4W Google Docs Idle: before: 7. 4W, after: 1. 6W Tagesschau Audio Player: before: 24. 4W, after: 4. 1W Loading Animation, low complexity: before: 4. 7W, after: 1. 8W Loading Animation, medium complexity: before: 7. 7W, after: 2. 1W Loading Animation, high complexity: before: 19. 8W Details on the scenarios: Scrolling: Scrolling up and down on Spinning Square: A simple test page YouTube Video: A 720p60Hz YouTube video, in window mode Google Docs Idle: Blinking caret in a text document on Google Docs Tagesschau Audio player: Playing audio on (unblock audio autoplay when testing) Loading Animation: The throbber animation in the Firefox tab bar, running with different foreground tabs: Low complexity: Medium complexity: High complexity: Google Docs Some users have reported even higher impacts from these changes than what our test machine showed. There seem to be large variations in power usage from compositing on different Mac models.
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這部電影雖然不好看 但特效還是很不錯的. Got a tip for us? Let us know. Started off at a slow pace but that's because the background needed to be in place. Mid way thru, it was edge of the seat and Lee Byung Hun was just stellar. Still as charismatic as ever, his character made the movie interesting. Plot was exciting and even my teen daughters enjoyed the movie. Appeal to all ages. Must watch.
Just watching this trailer... I felt the entire movie
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Thats the big one. I don't know but I'm getting this feeling that one of them will die/get infected in the end of the movie. Untrained Sth Korean army bomb disposal unit infiltrates Nth Korea to steal some Nukes so they can blow up a volcano before it erupts destroying the entire Korean Peninsula. br> They only had 1 copy of the map which they promptly lose (face palm) forcing them to rely on guidance from wise cracking but treacherous N Korean agent who just wants to find his daughter (BH Lee who at least earned 1 star, everyone else gets zero.
This movie was trash right from the start with ridiculously exaggerated disaster effects, ludicrously incompetent Sth Korean military, miraculous survival of the main characters and a blatant 'self-sacrifice redemption of the bad guy' movie trope.
Salamat po doc sa safe sa atin. Found there Ashfall Torrent &Online&HD&HBO&2018&Online "Ashfall" length. I was gonna skip this trailer because who needs another zombie movie. Then I watched it anyway. Looks really good. Hoping the Bibliography of Kobe Bryant. FF20: Dom fits up a turbocharger in his car and is ejected to heaven to take back Brian. We live in Lipa City and we just visited that area yesterday for a blessing of the house ceremony. I flew my drone close by today to try to get a view from the lake. @taZk. Twister : ทอร์นาโดมฤตยูถล่มโลก หนังหายนะภัยพิบัติเรื่องแรกที่ดู. I remember your Tagaytay Vlog, you just seen the Taal Lake and Volcano view there. Now it erupted. damn. 1:46 When my boi and I enter the club.😎.
Scientists: Thats not how physics works. Dom: I ain't got physics, I got family.
I thought this was gonna be about the robot cops. Instead it's about a weird guy with electricity powers.
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진짜 기대되네요. Ingat po. Lol i really thought it was Lindsay Lohan in the thumbnail.